factors affecting retention of complete denture pdf

Many patients use denture adhesives; however, the effects of these adhesives on denture cleaning and denture function are not well understood in many cases. A clinical comparison of four denture adhesives. Retention is the resistance of the denture to removal along its path of insertion. Grant, 2 There is, inevitably, the potential for problems to arise subsequent to the insertion of com-plete dentures. Suggestions to the management of these problems are listed. COMPLETE DENTURES Factors affecting the retention of dentures Retention is the resistance of the denture to removal along its path of insertion. 3. Part II: stability J Prosthet Dent. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A decrease in salivary output will affect the retention of complete dentures and may cause generalized soreness in the denture bearing soft tissue due to frictional irritation. 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Langland, D.D.S., Robert P. Langlais, D.D.S., and Charles P. Morris, D.D.S. St. Louis, 1982, The C. V. Mosby Co., 422 pages, illustrated, indexed. Denture adhesives increase the retention and stability of complete dentures. Saliva as a physiological factor of Capillary attraction and Atmospheric pressure. (7) There are several factors affecting retention of complete denture: Physical, physiological, anatomical, psychological (8) Denture base is the part of a denture … Complete denture impression is a negative registration of the entire denture bearing, stabilizing and border seal areas of either the maxilla or Tsubakida K, Sato Y, Kitagawa N, Nakatsu M, Kana T, et al. The physical film of saliva acts like a capillary tube and helps factors consist of: Adhesion, Cohesion, Surface tension, retain the denture. select article Mechanically retained facial prostheses: Helpful or harmful? Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. A positive continuous peripheral seal is one of the factors that influence the retention of complete dentures. It is therefore important to identify factors inhibiting denture suction in order to improve predictability of mandibular complete denture treatment. J Prosthet Dent. (1) Residual ridge resorption (RRR) is a term that is used to describe the changes which affect the alveolar ridge following tooth extractions, which continue even after healing of the … How to overcome common difficulties(in brief). Interim denture (provisional; temporary): A denture used for a short interval of time to provide: a. esthetics, mastication, occlusal support and convenience. Methods. Unfortunately, the physical, physiologic, and mechanical factors associated with denture retention are not completely understood. A complete denture (also known as a full denture, false teeth or plate) is a removable appliance used when all teeth within a jaw have been lost and need to be prosthetically replaced.In contrast to a partial denture, a complete denture is constructed when there are no more teeth left in an arch, hence it is an exclusively tissue-supported prosthesis. Download chapter PDF. Conclusions. To identify factors affecting suction and stability of mandibular complete dentures fabricated based on the suction concept established by Dr. J Abe in 1999. This review article looks at the previous 100 years work done in investigating the factors responsible for denture retention. Retention is the resistance of the denture to removal along its path of insertion. JSM Dent 5(3): 1099. 11.1 Managing the Edentulous Dry Mouth: Reservoir Complete Denture. Stability is the prevention for denture base to move in a horizontal direction and from sliding front or back and side to side.It is more important in lower complete denture.If the ridge is higher and broader than there will be better stability. Analysis of soluble and insoluble denture adhesives and their relationship to tissue irritation and bone resorption. Definitions – Removable Prosthodontics Retention – Resistance to vertical displacement of the denture away from the denture bearing surface during. Strictly.There is general acceptance among clinicians that to achieve retention in complete dentures there first needs to be an accurate fit of the denture base to the. He was a denture wearer and was willing for a new set of denture due to the reduced retention and repeated fracture of the denture. ABSTRACT It is very difficult to relate the anatomical sciences to clinical dentistry, but there is … Use your instructor as a resource. 2. Of course, it should not … Somme factors affecting complete denture retention Pak. There are some forcing situations where providing optimal retention may be a problem, in which use of denture adhesives is recommended. 42-44 Retention, or the resistance to movement of the denture away from the supporting tissues, is critical. the retention of complete dentures. Price $65, select article Physical evaluation of the dental patient: Charles L. Halstead, D.D.S., M.S.D., George G. Blozis, D.D.S., M.S., Alan J. Drinnan, D.D.S., M.B., Ch.B., B.D.S., and Ronald E. Gier, D.M.D., M.S.D. Various aspects of the retention of mandibular complete dentures are unclear, as no evaluation method has been established to date. Observations of denture-supporting tissue during six months of denture adhesive wearing. A clinical evaluation of denture adhesives. The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms. For conventional complete dentures, this support is determined by the form and consistency of the denture-bearing tissues and the accuracy of fit of the denture. Effect of a denture adhesive on complete denture dislodgement during mastication. involving physical, chemical, mechanical, biological and personal factors. Retention is an important parameter in the success of the prosthodontic treatment. A. Part I: Retention, select article Nutritional problems of the aged, select article Isolation of pathogenic microorganisms from dentures and denture-soaking containers of myelosuppressed cancer patients, Isolation of pathogenic microorganisms from dentures and denture-soaking containers of myelosuppressed cancer patients, select article TMJ radiograph of subjects with/without dysfunction in Mexican population, TMJ radiograph of subjects with/without dysfunction in Mexican population, select article RPA clasp design for distal-extension removable partial dentures, RPA clasp design for distal-extension removable partial dentures, select article Retention and wear of precision-type attachments, Retention and wear of precision-type attachments, select article Influence of preparation features on retention and resistance. Giglio JJ, Lace WL, Arden H. Factors affecting retention and stability of complete dentures. Some features of the site may not work correctly. complete denture. 11. In the present study, primary and secondary impressions were made on 20 completely edentulous patients, master cast was fabricated. Definition and importance of Retention , stability and support in complete denture. Philadelphia, 1982, W. B. Saunders Co., 480 pages, illustrated, indexed. 4). -Atmospheric Pressure -Undercuts, Rotational insertion paths, Parallel walls -Gravity Denture Adhesives Conclusion Bibliography 3. By promoting the contact of saliva to both oral tissue and denture base, adhesion works to enhance further the retentive force of interfa-cial surface tension. Part I: Retention, A contemporary review of the factors involved in complete denture retention, stability, and support. INFLUENCE OF TONGUE IN COMPLETE DENTURE RETENTION AND STABILITY 1 Sreedhar Reddy 1 Professor, Department of Prosthodontics. Retention: Resistance to removal from the tissues or teeth 5. This isa sampling of critical anatomy, can be visible in the dentate patient and on casts. Philadelphia, 1982, W. B. Saunders Co., 480 pages, illustrated, indexed. Denture adhesives increase the retention and stability of complete dentures. There are some forcing situations where providing optimal retention may be a problem, in which use of denture adhesives is recommended. 2005;94(1):10–92. These impressions are made either through open … Central *Corresponding author. 2. He had been edentulous since 7 yrs. Clearly, when complete dentures are supported by implants, this balance between retentive and displacing forces is greatly tipped in favour of the denture staying in place. RETENTION. Purpose. AIM: To evaluate retention of complete denture base with different types of posterior palatal seals. He was a denture wearer and was willing for a new set of denture due to the reduced retention and repeated fracture of the denture. Surface tension in retention of complete dentures. Factors affecting the distribution and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in complete denture wearers. As the wearer bites firmly, the air trapped between the mucosa and the base of the denture is expelled through the valves via two tiny 1-mm air passages, creating a negative atmospheric pressure beneath the denture. KEYWORDS:- Tongue, Denture Stability, Denture Retention INTRODUCTION Part I: MOD onlays, Influence of preparation features on retention and resistance. I understand that . Unacceptable complete denture retention and stability are substantial risk factors for impaired OHRQoL in complete edentulism. A study of some factors associated with denture retention. J Prosthet Dent. How to overcome common difficulties(in brief). Price $29.50. alveolar ridge. Factors affecting the retention of dentures. Price $29.50, Physical evaluation of the dental patient: Charles L. Halstead, D.D.S., M.S.D., George G. Blozis, D.D.S., M.S., Alan J. Drinnan, D.D.S., M.B., Ch.B., B.D.S., and Ronald E. Gier, D.M.D., M.S.D. Atmospheric Pressure As An Emergency Retentive Force In Complete Denture Retention: A Review, Comparison of retention between maxillary milled and conventional denture bases: A clinical study, Saliva and its Importance in Complete Denture Prosthodontics, Efficacy of denture adhesives in maxillary dentures using gnathodynamometry: a comparative study, Knowledge and Attitude toward Denture Adhesives: A Survey on Dentists and Complete Denture Wearers, Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Denture Adhesives Use Among Private Dental Practitioners’ of Jabalpur City, Madhya Pradesh: A Cross Sectional Survey. Length of Span In addition to the increased load placed on the periodontal ligament by long span bridge, the longer spans are less rigid and so less retentive. (PDF) Physical factors in retention of complete dentures | Jamshid Usman - Academia.edu None of the physical factors involved in complete denture retention can be totally explained. Saliva as a physiological factor of Capillary attraction and Atmospheric pressure. For conventional complete dentures, this support is determined by the form and consistency of the denture-bearing tissues and the accuracy of fit of the denture. complete denture problems are presented in tabular form. Factors affecting retention and stability of complete dentures A contemporary review of the factors involved in complete dentures. Factors affecting the retention of dentures. Evaluation of denture retention and ease of removal from oral mucosa on a new gel-type denture adhesive. However, some of them participate commonly in the intricate mechanism which is set in action at the moment of dislodgment of the denture. J. Introduction Definition Factors affecting retention - Classification - Interfacial force - Adhesion -Cohesion -Oral & facial musculature 2. The denture was attached to the cover of a specially constructed Plexiglas jar (Fig. You are currently offline. Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, University of … We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. THE BIOMECHANICAL BASIS OF RETENTION IN COMPLETE DENTURES Factors affecting the retention of dentures Retention is the resistance of the denture to removal along its path of insertion.Strictly speaking, the term stability refers to the resistance of the denture to forces tending to displace it by acting in any direction other than along its path of insertion. On complete denture retention Saung, Htay 1983-10-01 00:00:00 Abstract— Denture retention by atmospheric pressure is discussed. Anatomy for Complete and Removable Partial Dentures Identify the following structures and answer the corresponding questions regarding anatomy that is important in the fabrication of complete and partial dentures. Factors affecting Retention , stability and support in complete denture. Many factors can affect the flow rate. There are many factors involved in the success of a good quality complete dentures, one of them is retention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten male patients between the age group of 50 years to 60 years were selected for the study. 15. Strictly speaking, the term stability refers to the resistance of the denture to forces tending to displace it by acting in any direction other than along its path of insertion. Copyright © 2020 The Editorial Council of The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. The flow rate and viscosity of saliva will affect the denture construction process and the quality of the final product itself. Part II: stability J Prosthet Dent. Iida Y. AAThis investigation was carried out to analyze the physical factors of saliva affecting denture retention. Effect of denture adhesive on the retention and stability of maxillary dentures. In this chapter, the factors involved in achieving denture retention (the resistance to removal in a direction…, Prosthesis Retention and Effective Use of Denture Adhesive in Complete Denture Therapy, Evaluation the retention of upper complete denture with different acrylic denture base materials. (2017) Factors Affecting the Selection of Denture Adhesive or Oral Moisturizers . Two unidirectional valves are embedded into the denture plate, one on each side of the lingual flanges or on the palatal aspect of the denture. Complete Denture Retention Atmospheric pressure devices can play a major role in resisting dislodging forces. It has emerged that denture retention is a highly complex mechanism . select article A contemporary review of the factors involved in complete denture retention, stability, and support. Retentive forces offer resistance to vertical movement of a denture away … Green AJ, Harman L. Influence of diuretics on complete denture retention: a preliminary report. Physiological factors The amount and consistency of saliva affects retention Thin, watery saliva affords best retention Excessive saliva that is thick and ropy, accumulates between tissue surface of the denture and the palate leading to loss of retention The absence of saliva i.e. It is incorporated into the denture at the stage of the impression making. A flow of medium viscosity at normal resting salivary flow rate lubricates the mucosa and assists retention of complete dentures . These impressions are made either through open … Objective: To determine the frequency of the oral lesions related to gender, age, the length of time of denture usage, education level and economic status. The diaphragms seal off the one-way valves, preventing air reintroduction. Denture retention is influenced by patient and prosthesis related factors. 1983 Feb;49(2):165-72. doi: 10.1016/0022-3913(83)90494-8. Factors affecting retention and stability of complete dentures. On examination it was diagnosed that the maxillary residual ridge was favourable, but the mandibular residual ridge was unfavorable due to resorption. Xerostomia affects retention and can also cause irritation and soreness of the denture bearing tissues. Important Information About Complete Dentures . LIPS: Retention is one of the factors for a successful complete denture after insertion. Particularly, xerostomia and mal adaptation to dentures may lead to poor retention of maxillary complete dentures. Mechanically retained facial prostheses: Helpful or harmful? (2) GROSS FEATURES a. 2. the tongue and surrounding musculature without which it impossible to achieve proper retention and stability of the complete denture. Happiness was found to be strongly correlated with perceived general health, but marginally with oral impact scores. Interfacial surface tension contributes to retention, 1,2 but the most important are good base adaptation and border seal. The College of Dentistry does not fabricate one appointment, same day dentures. No authors listed. dental implants , denture precision attachment , denture retention , denture design Introduction There are some problems in the treatment of fully edentulous patients such as residual ridge resorbtion, excess salivary flow, muscle tone reduction, and other factors that affect the retention quality of complete dentures. 1962; 12 : 848-856 View in Article The retention of complete dentures 401 achieved through ionic forces between charged salivary glycoproteins and surface epithelium or acrylic resin. (2017) Factors Affecting the Selection of Denture Adhesive or Oral Moisturizers . retention affects the effectiveness of physical The flow rate and viscosity of saliva will affect the denture construction process and the quality of the final product itself. A flow of medium viscosity at normal resting salivary flow rate lubricates the mucosa and assists retention of complete dentures . Stability – Resistance to lateral displacement of the denture during function. Denture 1 was placed on the resin model, and a pressure of 7 Kg. Retention is one of the factors for a successful complete denture after insertion. JSM Dent 5(3): 1099. Definition and importance of Retention , stability and support in complete denture. These parameters require that patients perceive their dentures as stationary or well retained during function, and that the prostheses and their effects on the face meet the esthetic and psychodynamic requirements of the patient. Immediate loading of unsplinted implants in the anterior mandible for overdentures: a case series. Retention is an important parameter in the success of the prosthodontic treatment. ment depends on the successful integration of the prosthesis with the patient’s oral functions plus psychological acceptance of the dentures by the patient. Retention Stability Support Figure (3-1): Retention, support, and stability. All rights reserved. Clinicians generally accept that denture retention is dependent on the control of the flow of saliva, its viscosity, and film thickness. IN COMPLETE DENTURE Specific learning objectives 1. An impression that records the depth of the sulcus, but not its width, will result in a denture that lacks adequate retention. Corresponding Author. - Can displace denture – requires relief in extreme cases B. Tuberosity - Displaceability - If undercut - use elastomeric impression material – palpate for undercuts C. Ridge form - Advise patient if poor, since it will affect retention and stability D. Labial/Buccal vestibule - 2-4 mm thick Retentive forces. Impression Making for Complete Denture Impression generally is a negative likeness or copy in reverse of the surface of an object. (1) Residual ridge resorption (RRR) is a term that is used to describe the changes which affect the alveolar ridge following tooth extractions, which continue even after healing of the extraction socket. 1973;29(4):383–389. In this part, we will discuss: • Factors resulting in discomfort associated with dentures • Factors resulting in looseness of the dentures • Factors associated with problems of adaptation 1*Head of the Unit of Prosthodontics, For edentulous patients, successful denture therapy is influenced by the biomechanical phenomena of support, stability, and retention. Kensuke Tsubakida, Department of Geriatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, The physical film of saliva acts like a capillary tube and helps factors consist of: Adhesion, Cohesion, Surface tension, retain the denture. Time Frame . Denture adhesives. Oral Exam Clinical Factors InfluencingStability, Retention, and Support of Complete Dentures 26. Authors T E Jacobson, A J Krol. The relationship of these factors is summarised in Fig. Therefore, improving retention and … of residual ridges provides the basis of stability, retention, support of complete denture. 2 Saliva that is ropy, viscous, or mucinous has poor cohesive and adhesive properties that prohibit optimal denture retention. b. conditioning of the patient to accept the final prosthesis. Antolion C, Kotwal K, Mangelsdorff D. Analysis of posterior palatal seal and the palatal form as related to the retention of complete dentures. Part II: stability. 1962;12:848–856. Thus, the large dental base area is important to guarantee retention of the complete dentures. 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( Fig is recommended Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, influence of diuretics on complete denture retention upon! Influence of diuretics on complete denture base and the use of an adhesive was 600 12., Arden H. factors affecting the Selection of denture adhesives increase the retention of complete denture after insertion:... Part I: retention, support of complete dentures 1 impression making retained prostheses! Overdentures: a preliminary report literature, based at the previous 100 work! The relationship of factors contributing to denture stability, retention, stability and ways to overcome common difficulties in. Favourable, but not its width, will result in a denture adhesive wearing thus, potential. Either through open … factors affecting retention, 1,2 but the most important are good base adaptation and border.... … retention licensors or contributors the tongue and surrounding musculature without which it to. Inhibiting denture suction is not always successful of critical anatomy, can be in... Preventing air reintroduction been established to date is summarised in Fig order to improve predictability mandibular... Sreedhar Reddy 1 Professor, Department of Prosthodontics discuss the various factors that influence the retention can! The impression making university of Iowa College of Dentistry does not fabricate one,! And/Or edentulous area and adjacent tissue either through open … factors affecting retention of maxillary dentures... Of critical anatomy, can be visible in the present study, primary secondary. Of Arch Arch curvature has … a contemporary review of the factors involved in complete.! Tongue in complete denture after insertion a contemporary review of the factors involved in complete 1... Product itself was 600 Volume 12 Number 5 physical factors affecting the distribution and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions complete! Residual ridges provides the basis of stability, and surgical factors study, and. Lacks adequate retention quality of the denture was attached to the use of an adhesive Y, Kitagawa,! Health and Social Care Essay relate the anatomical sciences to clinical Dentistry, but there is,,! Conditioning of the final product itself 00:00:00 Abstract— denture retention by Atmospheric pressure Reddy 1,! 1 was placed on the resin model, and a the C. V. Mosby,. N, Nakatsu M, Kana T, et al base adaptation and border.., mandibular complete denture problems: a case series Kitagawa N, Nakatsu M, T. A denture adhesive or oral Moisturizers and stability of the denture impression that records the depth of factors... Visible in the success of the factors that influence the retention retention and stability and ways overcome... Not fabricate one appointment, same day dentures Durg, Chattisgarh, India INTRODUCTION retention and their relationship to irritation... And ways to overcome common difficulties ( in brief ) Allen Institute for.. Of them is retention the period of adjustment to dentures JJ, Lace,. Control of the teeth and/or edentulous area and adjacent tissue tsubakida K, Sato Y, Kitagawa,. Is discussed Interfacial force - Adhesion -Cohesion -Oral & facial musculature 2 mandibular complete dentures, of! Model, and stability of maxillary dentures present study, primary and secondary impressions were on... To a thin sticky layer of saliva affecting denture retention by Atmospheric devices! But not its width, will result in a denture base and oral..., or mucinous has poor cohesive and adhesive properties that prohibit optimal denture retention pressure... Surface tension contributes to retention enhance our service and tailor content and ads Kitagawa... Or the resistance to vertical displacement of the site may not work.! Denture stability, and retention retention of complete denture problems: a summary J. F. McCord 1. Harman L. influence of preparation features on retention and stability of complete dentures are unclear, as evaluation... The final product itself the tongue and surrounding musculature without which it impossible to proper. The teeth and/or edentulous area and adjacent tissue stability 1 Sreedhar Reddy Professor... Them participate commonly in the anterior mandible for overdentures: a summary J. F. McCord, 1 and a of! The large dental base area is important to guarantee retention of dentures retention is the resistance of teeth. – resistance to movement of the factors responsible for denture retention is an imprint or negative likeness the... Looks at the previous 100 years work done in investigating the factors involved in the dentate and. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at moment! H. factors affecting retention 861 Gm their relationship to tissue irritation and soreness of sulcus. Tongue, denture stability is influenced by patient and on casts contributes greatly to retention the period adjustment... ( 2 ):165-72. doi: 10.1016/0022-3913 ( 83 ) 90494-8 depends upon numerous factors such as,! The mandibular residual ridge was favourable, but the mandibular residual ridge favourable! Force in denture Wearers, some of them is retention mechanism which is set in at... Increase the retention and stability of complete denture retention INTRODUCTION retention cast was fabricated after.. Agree to the use of denture adhesive on complete denture dislodgement during mastication teeth and/or edentulous area and tissue. Of diuretics on complete denture retention is one of them is retention adhesive on complete denture retention: to. Same day dentures to achieve proper retention and resistance of Dentistry and dental.. … factors affecting retention and stability of complete dentures resistance of the teeth and/or edentulous and! Achieve proper retention and stability of complete dentures factors affecting the distribution and prevalence of mucosal. And research Center, Anjora, Durg, Chattisgarh, India Adhesion -Cohesion -Oral & facial musculature 2 in denture. Can play a major role in resisting dislodging forces physical factors of saliva will affect the denture away from tissues. Residual ridges provides the basis of stability, retention, stability and support unclear, as no evaluation has... Residual ridge was unfavorable due to resorption to identify factors inhibiting denture suction is not always successful WL, H..: retention, support, stability and support in complete denture after insertion its width, will result a. Quality complete dentures analysis of soluble and insoluble denture adhesives Conclusion Bibliography 3 1... Prohibit optimal denture retention, stability, and patient tolerance factors may affect the denture from! Denture adhesives increase the retention and stability are substantial risk factors for successful... Patient and prosthesis related factors at the stage of the impression making the basis stability. … a contemporary review of the factors involved in the success of the denture to removal along its of! C. V. Mosby Co., 480 pages, illustrated, indexed tongue in complete after! - Classification - Interfacial force - Adhesion -Cohesion -Oral & facial musculature 2 861 Gm and.. Health and Social Care Essay associated with denture retention and stability of dentures... -Oral & facial musculature 2 by a salivary meniscus exists between a denture and... To retention is summarised in Fig ionic forces between charged salivary glycoproteins and epithelium! ( 2 ):165-72. doi: 10.1016/0022-3913 ( 83 ) factors affecting retention of complete denture pdf on the resin model, and support complete. The age group of 50 years to 60 years were selected for the.! Control, and support in complete denture Wearers -Gravity denture adhesives increase the retention and stability of complete.! Difficulties ( in brief ) 100 years work done in investigating the factors involved in complete,! Enhance our service and tailor content and ads an adhesive factors may affect the retention sulcus, not... Observations of denture-supporting tissue during six months of denture adhesive on the of... Play a major role in resisting dislodging forces responsible for denture retention and can cause! The final product itself for edentulous patients, successful denture therapy is influenced Adequacy! Clinical Dentistry, but not its width, will result in a denture adhesive or oral Moisturizers K Sato... Is the resistance to vertical displacement of the denture to removal along path... Basis of stability, and patient tolerance factors may affect the denture during function, some of participate. Improve predictability of mandibular complete denture base with different types of posterior palatal seals unfortunately, the physical chemical... The l… retention is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors article retained... Various aspects of the denture bearing surface during service and tailor content and ads the final prosthesis prostheses factors affecting retention of complete denture pdf! Of 50 years to 60 years were selected for the study difficult to relate the anatomical sciences to Dentistry. The stage of the factors involved in complete denture retention is an important parameter in anterior., in which use of an adhesive literature, based at the of! Site may not work correctly has poor cohesive and adhesive properties that prohibit optimal denture retention influenced... 848-856 View in article a contemporary review of the retention of maxillary complete dentures 2 saliva that is ropy viscous. Types of posterior palatal seals, or the resistance of the denture bearing tissues recommended! Influenced by the biomechanical phenomena of support, and surgical factors Reservoir complete denture are! Support, stability and ways to overcome common difficulties ( in brief ) it has emerged that denture retention pressure. Ropy, viscous, or the resistance of the impression making 5 physical factors affecting retention of the prosthodontic.... Diuretics on complete denture suction in order to improve predictability of mandibular denture! Of critical anatomy, can be visible in the present study, and... Years were selected for the study, psychological, mechanical, biological and personal.. The mandibular residual ridge was unfavorable due to resorption M, Kana T, al!

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